Pakistan has suffered a serious blow to its regional aspirations since the toppling of the Taliban in Afghanistan. In contrast, its South Asian rival India is finding Afghanistan and its northern neighbours welcoming a larger role. Despite its late entry into the region, India appears to be set to make significant gains at Pakistan’s expense. The India–Pakistan rivalry in Central Asia is concentrated on that region’s vast energy reserves, its geo-strategic importance in relation to Russia and China, and its potential role in the Kashmir dispute. The Indian government has woken up to the role that Central Asia can play in advancing New Delhi’s regional ambitions, and the post-Taliban geo-strategic conditions favour its agenda.